What Darwin Never Knew

When we look around, we see many different species, why they are here in this way are tried to be explained by the theory of evolution Theories generally do not satisfy people and are not taken into consideration. There is a perception that it is the laws that tell us the absolute truth, and when the theories are sufficiently developed, there is misinformation from the education system as if they are laws.The law tells what the phenomenon is. The law of gravity tells the objects that they apply force to each other, but when we ask the question, how can it not answer, the apple falls from the tree to the ground but how it falls here the theories come into play.Gravity theory, evolution theory, circuit theory, disease-causing microbe theory, these theories form the basis of modern biology and engineering.


Evolution is a law, such as apples falling on the ground, observed in a laboratory setting or with fossil evidence. The theory of evolution answers the question of how.Since ancient Greece, “theories of evolution” can be found, with how creatures change over time. If you refute the theory of evolution, you do not destroy the phenomenon of evolution, you will provide a more successful explanation.

Theories are as strong as the field they can explain, Newton’s theory of gravitation does not work at high speeds and is incomplete, Einstein closed this gap, but Einstein’s theories are also lacking.Theories become stronger over time, adding that they do not mean they are wrong, they just need to be developed, some of them can be destroyed altogether.

Darwin’s theory of evolution is, of course, incomplete, and he knows it. How was evolution happening, how did creatures convey their traits to their children, how was variation created in the population?We know the answers to these questions through genetic studies, but Darwin could not know because of his time.

Darwin’s thanks to the future from Mendel

In fact, Darwin and Mendel lived in the same time period, albeit briefly, but did not know about each other.
While Mendel was teaching at the monastery, he was also experimenting with pea plants and was not aware that he laid the foundations of genetics.When he explained his work to scientific communities, he was not taken too seriously and his work was forgotten for 35 years.

Today, genetics is the basis of the working mechanisms of the theory of evolution.If Darwin were aware of Mendel, he could have further developed the theory of evolution. But we know, when a living thing is naturally selected, the genetic information that actually constructs the living thing is selected.Genes do not interact directly with the world outside, the machines they produce interact with, and the information of the creature that adapts most to the environment (there may be many mechanisms) is transferred to the next generations.Although you have the same parent, you are usually different from your brother.

Small or large changes that accumulate in genetic information, combined with a long time, lead to dramatic differentiation.Most branches are dry in the tree of life, it is difficult to adapt to the environment and withstand sudden changes

How ?


Hox genes

Hox genes are found in almost all animals and are responsible for regulating body plans. The genes are properly arranged on the chromosome in the order of the body parts they define. Genes responsible for the head are located at the beginning of the Hox gene set.Hox proteins bind to DNA and act as regulators on other genes, as we see in the example of the beak, they act as bosses or directors. They can manage cell division, destruction and differentiation as transcription factors.


We know that Hox genes direct body architectures, but if we experience mutation, copying or deletion in these genes, how do we encounter results?

The fin found in fish becomes usable for driving or flying. For example, the origins of humans, cats, whales and bats are the same, but their functions can be examined by different organs.In the evolutionary process, architectures are not built from the very beginning, but small changes occur on what is available microevolution can be at the molecular or organ level, this phenomenon is called exaption. Small changes accumulate over millions of years, resulting in speciation and macro evolution.


Arms and Legs

The living ancestor with the arm or leg derivatives living on the land must be a common ancestor. This common ancestor can also be seen as an intermediate form. The fossil here is called Tiktaalik, and it lived about 365 million years ago, in this long period the hot water basin where Tiktaalik lived has turned into a frozen mountain.
Unlike the fish, there have been changes in the front fins that will adapt to the land.Not only in the fins, but also in the eyes and neck, it has gained adaptations that will make it easier to get out of the water.



Approximately 2% of human DNA consists of protein codes and 50% consists of copy and paste.The parts called “garbage DNA” that do not produce protein are actually very important. These parts are involved in processes such as binding of transcription factors, production of some functional RNAs, formation of telomeres and centromers.

As a result, theories are continually tested, become stronger each time they pass a test, but a single discordant prediction ignores thousands of successful predictions and requires reconsideration or development of the theory.The theory of evolution that has been strengthened by genetics and has passed the exams so far, but is still lacking. Life is more complicated than Darwin’s estimation, he has entered this problem from the middle, under the problem is the evolution of the ecosystem above the beginning of life.
Darwin’s dangerous idea also comes out of biology and forces it to develop or reform areas such as physics, chemistry, sociology, psychology, and computer science.

— To understand the theories: Not all swans are white. —

— Sources —



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